NAEYC Technology and Young Children Interest Forum

Mission Statement

To lead discussions, share research and information
and demonstrate best
practices regarding
technology so it can be
used to benefit children
aged 0-8 years.







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[ Research Bibliography ] [ Research Available Online ]

The following articles and links are listed here to help early childhood educators locate research related to technology use with young children.

Selected Bibliography on Technology & Young Children

Debate on Appropriateness of Technology for Young Children

Review Articles on Technology & ECE

  • Burden, K. (2013). iPad research in schools.
  • Clements, D. H. (1991). Current technology and the early childhood curriculum. In B. Spodek & O. N. Saracho (Eds.), Yearbook in early childhood education, Volume 2: Issues in early childhood curriculum (pp. 106-131). New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Clements, D. H. (1993). Computer technology and early childhood education. In J. L. Roopnarine & J. E. Johnson (Eds.), Approaches to early childhood education (2nd ed.) (2nd ed., pp. 295-316). New York: Merrill.
  • Clements, D. H. (1993). Early education principles and computer practices. In C. G. Hass & F. W. Parkay (Eds.), Curriculum planning: A new approach (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Clements, D. H., & Nastasi, B. K. (1992). Computers and early childhood education. In M. Gettinger & S. N. Elliott & T. R. Kratochwill (Eds.), Advances in school psychology: Preschool and early childhood treatment directions (pp. 187-246). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Guernsey, L. (2007). Into the minds of babes: How screen time affects children from birth to age five. New York: Basic Books.
  • Hutinger, P., Bell, C., Beard, M., Bond, J., Johanson, J., & Terry, C. (1998). Final Report: The early childhood emergent literacy technology research study. Macomb, IL: Western Illinois University, Macomb Projects.
  • Hutinger, P., Bell, C., Daytner, G., & Johanson, J. (2005). Disseminating and replicating an effective emergent literacy technology curriculum: A final report. Macomb, IL: Western Illinois University, Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood. Available in html: or PDF:
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2002). Learning and teaching with computers in early childhood education. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Contemporary Perspectives in Early Childhood Education (pp. 171-219). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
  • Yelland, N. (1995). Mindstorms or a storm in a teacup? A review of research with Logo. International Journal of Mathematics Education, Science, and Technology, 26(6), 853-869.

Impact of Technology on Children's Cognitive Development

  • Calvert, S. L., Strong, B. L., & Gallagher, L. (2005). Control as an engagement feature for young children's attention to the learning of computer content. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(5), 578-589.
  • Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2009). Brains in a box:  Do new age toys deliver on the promise? In R. Harwood (Ed.), Child development in a changing society. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Press.
  • Levy, S. T., & Mioduser, D. (2010). Approaching complexity through planful play: kindergarten children's strategies in constructing an autonomous robot's behavior. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 15(1), 21-43.
  • Li, X., Atkins, M. S., & Stanton, B. (2006). Effects of home and school computer use on school readiness and cognitive development among Head Start children: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 239-263.
  • Nastasi, B. & Clements, D.H. (1994). Effectance motivation, perceived scholastic competence, and high-order thinking in two cooperative computer environments. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 10, 249-275.
  • Wright & D. D. Shade (Eds.), Young children: Active learners in a technological age. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
  • Childhood stimulation key to brain development –
    Scientists found that the more mental stimulation a child gets around the age of four, the more developed the parts of their brains dedicated to language and cognition will be in the decades ahead.
  • Fred Rogers Center Helping young Children develop a healthy media diet.

Impact of Technology on Children's Social Development

  • Buckleitner, W. (2000). Sharing at the computer: Software that promotes socialization and cooperation. Scholastic Early Childhood Today, 6-7.
  • Calvert, S. L. (2002). Identity construction on the Internet. In S. L. Calvert, A. B. Jordan, & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Children in the digital age: Influences of electronic media on development(pp.57-70). Westport, CT: Praeger.
  • Freeman, N. K. & Somerindyke, J. (2001). Social play at the computer: Preschoolers scaffold and support peers' computer competence. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual, 203-213.
  • Hargittai, E. (2010). Digital Na(t)ives? Variation in Internet Skills and Uses among Members of the "Net Generation". Sociological Inquiry, 80(1), 92-113.
  • Heft, T., & Swaminathan, S. (2002). The effects of computers on the social behavior of preschoolers. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 16(2), 162-174
  • Lomangino, A. G., Nicholson, J., & Sulzby, E. (1999). The influence of power relations and social goals on children's collaborative interactions while composing on computers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14(2), 197-228.
  • McLoughlin, P. (2007). The influences of electronic media on children's social skills under the age of five. The University of Bolton, The University of Bolton.
  • Wang, X. C. & Ching, C. C. (2003). Social construction of computer experience in a first-grade classroom: Social processes and mediating artifacts. Early Education and Development, 14(3), 335-361.

Technology and Content Areas

  • Clements, D. H. (2002). Computers in early childhood mathematics. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 3(2), 160-181.
  • Clements, D. H. (1999). Young children and technology. In G. D. Nelson (Ed.), Dialogue on early childhood science, mathematics, and technology education (pp. 92-105). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2009). Learning and teaching early math: The learning trajectories approach  (pp. 113-120; 134-136; 147; 167; 184-185; 280-290). New York: Routledge.
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2008). Mathematics and technology: Supporting learning for students and teachers. In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on science and technology in early childhood education (pp. 127-147). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2005). Young children and technology: What's appropriate? In W. Masalski, & P. C. Elliott (Eds.), Technology-supported mathematics learning environments: 67th Yearbook(pp. 51-73). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2007). Curriculum, technology. In R. S. New & M. Cochran (Eds.), Early Childhood Education: An international encyclopedia (Vol. 1, pp. 221-225). Westport, CN: Praeger.
  • Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2004). Building Blocks for early childhood mathematics. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 181-189.
  • Dyson, A. (1999). The ninja's, the ladies, and the X-men: Text as a ticket to play. From Writing Superheroes: Contemporary childhood, popular culture, and classroom literacy (pp. 47-65). New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Hourcade, J. J., Parette, H. P., Boeckmann, N., & Blum, C. (2010). Handy manny and the emergent literacy technology toolkit. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(6),483-491.
  • Labbo, L.D., & Ash, G.E. (1998). What is the role of computer-related technology in early literacy? In S.B. Neuman & K.A. Roskos (Eds.), Children Achieving: Best Practices in Early Literacy. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  • Mistry, K. B., Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D. M., & Borzekowski, D. L. G. (2007). Children's television exposure and behavioral and social outcomes at 5.5 years: Does timing of exposure matter? Pediatrics, 120, 762-769.
  • Paparistodemou, E., Noss, R., & Pratt, D. (2008). The interplay between fairness and randomness in a spatial computer game. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 13, 89-110.
  • Parette, H. P., Blum, C., & Boeckmann, N. (2009). Evaluating assistive technology in early childhood education: The use of a concurrent time series probe approach. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(1), 5-12.
  • Pelletier J., Reeve, R., & Halewood, C. (2006). Young Children's Knowledge Building and Literacy Development Through Knowledge Forum®. Early Education and Development, 17(3).
  • Roseberry, S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Parish-Morris, J., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2009). Live action: Can young children learn verbs from video? Child Development, 80, 1360-1375.
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2009). Early childhood mathematics education research:  Learning trajectories for young children  (pp. 139; 190-192; 236-238; 288; 311-312; 353). New York: Routledge.
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2008). Linking research and software development. In G. W. Blume & M. K. Heid (Eds.), Research on technology and the teaching and learning of mathematics: Volume 2, cases and perspectives (pp. 113-130). New York: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
  • Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2002). Building Blocks for young children's mathematical development. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 27(1&2), 93-110.
  • Saz, O., Yin, S., Lleida, E., Rose, R., Vaquero, C., & Rodriguez, W. R. (2009). Tools and technologies for computer aided speech and language therapy. Speech Communications, 51, 948-967.
  • Slavin, R. E., & Lake, C. (2008). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78, 427-515.
  • Weiss, I., Kramarski, B., & Talis, S. (2006). Effects of multimedia environments on kindergartenchildren's mathematical achievements and style of learning. Educational Media International, 43, 3-17.
  • Wilson, A. J., Dehaene, S., Pinel, P., Revkin, S. K., Cohen, L., & Cohen, D. K. (2006). Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2:19.
  • Wilson, A. J., Revkin, S. K., Cohen, D. K., Cohen, L., & Dehaene, S. (2006). An open trial assessment of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2:20.
  • Pioneering Literacy in the Wild West -
    Looks at the features of apps that are marketed as helping young children learn to read. It also explores how pioneering early childhood programs are harnessing technology to reach parents and teachers.

Technology Use in School

  • Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and underused: Computers in the Classroom. Harvard U. Press.
  • Gillespie, C.W. (2004). Seymour Papert’s vision for early childhood education? A descriptive study of preschoolers and kindergarteners in discovery-based, Logo-rich classrooms. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 6(1). Available online at
  • Gillespie, C.W. & Beisser, S.R. (2001). Developmentally appropriate LOGO computer programming with young children. Information Technology in Childhood Education, 232-247
  • Good, L. (2005/06). Snap it up!: Using digital photography in early childhood. Childhood Education, 82(2), 79-85
  • Haugland, S. (2005) Selecting or Upgrading Software and Web Sites in the Classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal. 32(5) 329-340.
  • Haugland, S.W., Ruiz E.L. and Gong, Y. (2004) Animals on-line: Using information technologies to locate pets, learn about their care, and communicate with others. In Jalongo, M.R. The World’s Children and Their Companioon Animals: Developmental and Educational Implications of the Child/Pet Bond. Association for Childhood Education International, 127-137.
  • Haugland, S. W. (2004). Early childhood classrooms in the 21st century: Using computers to maximize learning. In Hirschbuhl, J. Computers in Education Annual Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Hutinger, P., Johanson, J., & Rippey, R. (2000). Final report: Benefits of comprehensive technology system in an early childhood setting: Results of a three-year study. Macomb, IL: Western Illinois University, Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood.
  • Hutinger, P., & Johanson, J. (2000). Implementing and maintaining an effective early childhood comprehensive technology system. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(3), 159-173.
  • Plowman, L., & Stephen, C. (2005). Children, play, and computers in pre-school education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 145-157
  • Wang, X. C., Kedem, Y., & Hertzog, N. (2004). Scaffolding young children's reflections with student-created PowerPoint presentations. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 19(2).
  • Changing How and What Children Learn in School with Computer-Based Technologies (in PDF) or Changing How and What Children Learn in School with Computer-Based Technologies (in HTML). by Jeremy M. Roschelle, Roy D. Pea, Christopher M. Hoadley, Douglas N. Gordin, and Barbara M. Means
  • International Society for Technology in Society (ISTE) standards for learning, teaching and leading in the digital age.

Young Children's Technology Experience Outside of School

Research on Teacher & Technology

Digital Divide, Gender, & Equity Issues

Research Available Online

Special Issues on Technology and Young Children

Early Childhood Research or Technology Related Journals